Example of SCHOLARLY work (note work cited):
The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools
CATHERINE L. RAMSTETTER, MS, PhD,
ROBERT MURRAY,MD, FAAPb
ANDREW S. GARNER,MD, PhD, FAAPc
BACKGROUND: Recess is at the heart of a vigorous debate over the role of schools in promoting optimal child development and well-being. Reallocating time to accentuate academic concerns is a growing trend and has put recess at risk. Conversely, pressure to increase activity in school has come from efforts to combat childhood obesity. The purpose of this review was to examine the value of recess as an integral component of
the school day. METHODS: A comprehensive review of recess-specific literature was conducted, beginning with a Google Scholar search, to cull definitions, position statements, and policy recommendations from national/international associations and organizations. A multi-database search followed. Additional articles were selected from reference lists. RESULTS: The search yielded a range of articles, from those focused on specific
aspects of recess to those that examined multiple factors, including how to structure and conduct recess. Several themes emerged supporting recess as beneficial for children’s cognitive, social, emotional, and physical functioning. Optimal recess was well-supervised and safe. Crucial components were well-maintained playground equipment and well-trained supervisors. CONCLUSION: Recess serves a critical role in school as a necessary break from the rigors of academic challenges. Recess is a complement to, not a replacement for, physical education. Both promote activity and a healthy lifestyle; however, recess—particularly unstructured recess and free play—provides a unique contribution to a child’s creative, social, and emotional development. From the perspective of children’s health and well-being, recess time should be considered a child’s personal time and should not be withheld for academic or punitive reasons. Keywords: growth and development; child and adolescent health; physical fitness and
Citation: Ramstetter CL, Murray R, Garner AS. The crucial role of recess in schools.
J Sch Health. 2010; 80: 517-526. Received on May 31, 2009 Accepted on April 7, 2010
aAssistant Director, (email@example.com), Center for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning; Adjunct Professor, Health Promotion and Education, University of Cincinnati,
Langsam480,Mail Location0033, POBox 210033, Cincinnati, OH45221-0033.
bDirector, (Robert.Murray@NationwideChildrens.org), Center for HealthyWeight &Nutrition, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH43205.
cPediatrician, (andrew.garner@UHhospitals.org), The Center for ChildHealth and Policy, RainbowBabies and Children’s Hospital, University HospitalsMedical Practices, 960 Clague
Road, Suite 1850,Westlake, OH44145.
Address correspondence to: Catherine L. Ramstetter, Assistant Director, (firstname.lastname@example.org), Center for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning, University of Cincinnati,
Langsam480,Mail Location0033, POBox 210033, Cincinnati, OH45221-0033.
Special thanks toDr. Amy Bernard, Associate Professor of Health Promotion and Education at theUniversity of Cincinnati, for her guidance, support, and feedback on this project.
The authors also appreciate the input of the Committee onHome and School Health, Ohio Chapter of the AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics.
Journal of School Health • November 2010, Vol. 80, No. 11 • © 2010, American School Health Association • 517
Recess is at the heart of a vigorous debate over the role of schools in promoting optimal child development and well-being. Reallocating time to accentuate academic concerns is a growing trend and has put recess at risk. A nationally representative survey of districts, conducted by the Center on Education Policy in 2006 to 2007, found that 20% of districts had reduced recess by an average of 50 minutes perweek to allocate more instructional time for English and Math.1 Recess serves as a necessary break from the rigors of concentrated, academic challenges in the classroom,
yet in the United States, it is inconsistently offered, and as children age, the opportunity to participate in recess declines.2,3 Equally important, recess has the potential to affect the whole child—offering academic, cognitive, emotional, physical, and social benefits— that may not be fully appreciated when a decision is made to diminish it. The multifaceted potential of recess to impact a child’s growth and development underscores recommendations for regularly scheduled, unstructured recess periods for all children from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), National Association for Sports and Physical Education, and National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (Table 1).4-6 Children should be encouraged, but not required, to be physically active during recess, and as such, recess should complement, not replace or substitute for physical education classes.5 In addition to curricular decisions to decrease allotted time for recess, it is withheld from students as Table 1. National Recommendations for Recess Organization Definition Timing and Duration Other Considerations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention4 • Regularly scheduled periods during school day for unstructuredphysical activity and play Target population: elementary school Timing: recess before lunch
Duration: not addressed
• Trained adults enforce safety rules, prevent aggressive, bullying behavior
• Provide space, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are appealing to children
• Staff encourage students to be active during recess National Association for Sport and Physical Education5
• Discretionary time and unstructured play opportunities to engage in physical activity
• Develops healthy bodies, enjoyment of movement
• Anecessary educational support component Target population: elementary school
Timing: daily, not scheduled immediately before or after physical education class
Duration: at least 20minutes
• Does not replace physical education classes
• Should not be denied as punishment or to finish classwork
• Provide adequate, safe spaces, facilities, equipment
• Use outdoor spaces when weather allows
• Teach safety rules, conflict resolution
• Supervisionby qualifiedadults
• Bullying, aggressive behavior not tolerated
National Association of Early
ChildhoodSpecialists in State
Departments of Education6
• Essential component of education
• Opportunity to participate in regular periods of active, freeplaywithpeers
Target population: preschool and elementary school
Timing: daily; requirerecess time to be part of preschool, elementary-school curriculum
Duration: not addressed
• Typically outdoors in designated play area
• During inclementweather,may have recess in game room, gymnasium, inside classroom
• Support research on effects of recess on development (social, emotional, physical, and cognitive) and academic achievement
• Support research on benefits and possible restorative role of recess for children with attention disorders
punishment;2 a practice which ‘‘deprives students of health benefits important to their well-being.’’7(p 12) Conversely, efforts to combat childhood obesity have emphasized recess as a potential means of increasing physical activity in schools.8,9 The purpose of this review was to examine the value of recess as an integral component in the education of the whole child during the school day in the United States. METHODS
This was a comprehensive review of recess-specific literature. Studies, commentaries, and position statements dealing with children’s play, fitness, and/or physical activity were all assessed initially, as recess provides an opportunity for children to engage in these endeavors. However, articles.....
*8 pages later...*
1. McMurrer J. Choices, Changes, and Challenges: Curriculum and Instruction in the NCLB Era. Washington, DC: Center on Education
Policy; 2007. Available at: http://www.cep-dc.org/ data/n 0001/resources/live/07107%20Curriculum-WEB%20FINAL% 207%2031%2007.pdf. Accessed November 14, 2009.
2. Lee SM, Burgeson CR, Fulton JE, Spain CG. Physical education and physical activity: results from the School Health Policies
and Programs Study 2006. J Sch Health. 2007;77:435-463. 3. Parsad B, Lewis L. Calories In, Calories Out: Food and Exercise in
Public Elementary Schools, 2005. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics;
2006. NCES 2006-057.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Promoting better health for young people through physical activity and sports, appendix 7, 2000. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/physicalactivity/promoting health/pdfs/ppar a07.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2008.
5. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Recess for Elementary School Students [Position paper]. Reston, VA: National
Association for Sport and Physical Education; 2006.
6. National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education. Recess and the importance of play: a position statement on young children and recess, 2002. Available at: http://www.naecs-sde.org/recessplay.pdf. Accessed November 9, 2007.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997;46(No. RR-6):1-36. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/RR/RR4606.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2008.
8. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program [Position statement]. Reston, VA: National Association for Sport and Physical Education; 2008.
9. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Recess Rules: Why the Undervalued Playtime May Be America’s Best Investment for Healthy Kids and Healthy Schools Report. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 2007. Available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/ research/sports4kidsrecessreport.pdf. Accessed November 11, 2007.
10. United Nations. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights. November 20, 1989. Available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm. Accessed March 30, 2008.
11. Jarrett O. Recess in elementary school: what does the research say? ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED466331); July 1, 2002.
12. Pellegrini AD. Recess: Its Role in Education and Development. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 2005.
13. Pellegrini AD, Smith K. School recess: implications for education and development. Rev Educ Res. 1993;63(1):51-67.
14. Barros RM, Silver EJ, Stein REK. School recess and group classroom behavior. Pediatrics. 2009;123:431-436.
15. Jarrett O, Maxwell DM, Dickerson C, Hoge P, Davies G, Yetley A. Impact of recess on classroom behavior: group effects and individual differences. J Educ Res. 1998;92:121-126.
16. Pellegrini A, Bohn C. The role of recess in children’s cognitive performance and school adjustment. Educ Res. 2005;34(1):13-19.
17. Sibley B, Etnier J. The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Ped Ex Sci. 2003;15:243-256.
18. Pellegrini A, Kato K, Blatchford P, Baines E. A short-term longitudinal study of children’s playground games across the first year of school: implications for social competence and adjustment to school. Am Educ Res J. 2002;39:991-1015.
19. International Play Association. The case for elementary school recess. International Play Assoc USA Affiliate Webpage. Available
at: http://www.ipausa.org/caseforrecess.html. Accessed January 28, 2009.
20. Stellino MB, Sinclair CD. Intrinsically motivated, free-time physical activity: considerations for recess. JOPERD. 2008; 79(4):37-40. Journal of School Health • November 2010, Vol. 80,No. 11 • © 2010, American School Health Association • 525
21. Bjorklund DF, Brown RD. Physical play and cognitive development: integrating activity, cognition, and education. Child Dev. 1998;69:604-606.
22. Pellegrini A, Huberty P, Jones I. The effects of recess timing on children’s playground and classroom behaviors. Am Educ Res J. 1995;32:845-864.
23. Holmes R, Pellegrini A, Schmidt S. The effects of different recess timing regimens on preschoolers’ classroom attention. Early Child Dev Care. 2006;176:735-743.
24. Ginsburg KR, for the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Communications and American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. Pediatrics. 2007;119:182-191.
25. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines for Children Ages 5-12.
2nd ed. [Position paper]. Reston, VA: National Association for Sport and Physical Education; 2004.
26. Action for Healthy Kids. Commitment to change, 2008. Available at: http://www.actionforhealthykids.org/resources/files/commitmenttochange.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2008.
27. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Sports Med and Fitness and Committee on School Health. Physical fitness and activity in schools. Pediatrics. 2000;105:1156-1157.
28. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Sports Med and Fitness and Committee on School Health. Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1834-1842.
29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Promoting better health for young people through physical activity and sports, 2000. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/physicalactivity/promoting health/pdfs/ppar.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2008.
30. GrissomJ. Physical fitness and academic achievement. J Ex Phys Online. 2005;8(1):11-25. Available at: http://www.asep.org/
files/Grissom.pdf. Accessed March 27, 2008.
31. Stanford University, Stanford Prevention Research Center & Stanford University School of Medicine. Building ‘‘Generation Play’’: addressing the crisis of inactivity among America’s children, 2007. Available at: http://www.playeveryday.org/
Stanford%20Report.pdf. Accessed November 11, 2007.
32. Strong WB,Mauna RM, Bumke CJ, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;6:732-737.
33. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. DietaryGuidelines forAmericans, 2005. 6th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005. (Stock Number 001-000-04719-1).
34. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity: overweight in children and adolescents, 2007. Available at: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/fact adolescents.htm. Accessed November 11, 2007.
35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Education and Community-based Programs. Healthy People 2010. Washington,
DC: U.S. Government PrintingOffice; 2000. Available at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/document/HTML/Volume1/07Ed.htm. Accessed November 1, 2008.
36. Zygmunt-Fillwalk E, Bilello TE. Parents’ victory in reclaiming recess for their children. Child Educ. 2005;82(1):19-23.
37. Kahan D. Recess, extracurricular activities, and active classrooms: means for increasing elementary school students’ physical activity. JoPERD. 2008;79(2):26-39.
38. Wechsler H, Devereaux AB, Davis M, Collins J. Using the school environment to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Prev Med. 2000;31:S121-S137.
39. Ridgers ND, Stratton G, Fairclough SJ, Twisk WR. Long-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures on children’s recess physical activity levels. Prev Med. 2007;44:393-397.
40. Stratton G, Leonard J. The effects of playground markings on the energy expenditure of 5-7 year old school children. Ped Ex
41. McKenzie TL, Kahan D. Physical activity, public health, and elementary schools. Elem Sch J. 2008;108(3):171-180.
42. Bergman EA, Buergel NS, Englund A, Femrite T. Relationships of Meal and Recess Schedules to Plate Waste in Elementary Schools.
National Food Service Management Institute, University of Mississippi; 2003. R71-03. Available at: http://www.nfsmi.org ResourceOverview.aspx?ID=191. Accessed January 28, 2009.
43. Getlinger MJ, Laughlin CVT, Bell E, Akre C, Arjmandi BH. Food waste is reduced when elementary-school children have recess before lunch. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996;96:906-908.
44. Robinson A, for the Montana Office of Public Instruction. Pilot project report: a recess before lunch policy in four Montana schools, April 2003-May 2003. NAL Call Number: LB3479.U5 M66 2003. Available at: http://opi.mt.gov/PDF/SchoolFood/RBL/RBLPilot.pdf. Accessed January 28, 2009.
45. Ralston K, Buzby JC, Guthrie JF. A healthy school meal environment. Economic Research Service, USDA. July 2003. FANRR-34-5. Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr34/fanrr34-5/fanrr34-5.pdf. Accessed January 28, 2009.
46. Stevenson H, Lee S. Contexts of achievement: a study of American, Chinese, and Japanese children. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 1990;55(1-2):1-123.
47. Scheidegger CB. Recess: Right or Privilege? [UnpublishedMaster’s Thesis]. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati; 2005.
48. Henley J, McBride J,Milligan J, Nichols J. Robbing elementary students of their childhood: the perils of No Child
Here is an example of a POPULAR article (note lack of work cited list):
Source: Newsweek, 2/3/2003
A new fitness philosophy puts gym teachers on the front lines in the battle against childhood obesity
Twice a week, Kale Granda, an eighth grader at Titusville Middle School in rural Pennsylvania, changes into his gym clothes, straps on a heart-rate monitor and mounts a GameRider, a stationary bike attached to a PlayStation. For the next 20 minutes, Kale, who packs 190 pounds on his 64-inch frame, transforms his physical-education class into a virtual motocross. By the time his teacher, Tim McCord, signals the end of class, Kale's shirt is soaked. He jumps off his bike, leaving his virtual motorcycle to crash into a virtual retaining wall, and proudly shows McCord the results from his monitor. For more than 13 minutes, Kale's heart rate was in his target zone--about 170 beats per minute. McCord is thrilled and Kale offers a triumphant grin.
These days, students at Madison strap on heart monitors and work out on treadmills, stationary bikes or a rock-climbing wall. Some try in-line skating or even power walking. When they play traditional sports, the rules are modified so the action never stops. Football is four-on-four without huddles or downs so the ball is constantly in motion. Three-on-three basketball is a riot of passing and shooting. Lawler is now a director of PE4Life, a nonprofit foundation that promotes more active physical education, and his revamped gym class has become a model. "We want to give students the knowledge, training and experiences they need," says Lawler, "to keep themselves fit for their entire lives."
Although the gospel of the New PE is spreading fast, gym teachers have a hard time convincing parents and legislators that gym class is worth students' time and the district's money. Gym is often the first class cut when budgets get tight. Last year only 30 percent of high-school students had a daily gym class. And many elementary and middle schoolers have gym only once a week if at all. "We need to convince parents and school boards that PE has evolved," says Judy Young, who heads the National Association for Sports & Physical Education, the professional organization for gym teachers. "It can be a valuable part of a child's development. With rising rates of obesity, it can also save their lives." Schools in California, Maryland, Florida and several other states have begun issuing PE report cards along with the traditional ones, in order to show parents just how out of shape children have become. The PE report card measures each student's flexibility, endurance, cardiovascular output and body fat and then tells parents what their kids need to do to get healthy. "For a lot of parents," says Sarajane Quinn, physical-education coordinator for the Baltimore County Public Schools, "it's a wake-up call."
Some gym teachers need a wake-up call as well. Many are hired to be coaches who spend their time grooming elite athletes instead of working with all types of students. "We were taught that if kids want to sit on the side and not participate, too bad, that's their problem," says Peggy Hutter, a veteran PE teacher at Kearsarge Regional Middle School near Concord, N.H. "But now gym teachers are looking at all those kids on the sidelines and saying, 'Hey, maybe we're the ones who have the problem'."
But New PE proponents say the momentum is shifting. The Texas Legislature recently mandated more physical education for elementary schoolers, and other states are considering similar bills. Last spring Congress allocated $50 million in grant money so PE teachers can refocus their curriculum on fitness. That makes sense to Titusville PE teacher Tim McCord. Years ago McCord says he graded kids on whether they changed for gym, hit a baseball and took a shower. "With the health challenges these kids face now, we just have to do better than that." That's a goal that should set heart rates soaring.
The Fitness Report Card
This Fitnessgram uses a series of strength, aerobic and bodymass tests to measure a child's physical condition. Here are the minimum scores a 12-year-old needs to maintain good health:
FITNESS PASSING SCORE
TEST DESCRIPTION BOY GIRL
Timed run Run a 20-meter course at an 32 23 increasingly faster pace laps laps
Cardio A measure of aerobic capacity 42 38
Body fat Based on a skin-fold test 25% 32%
Body mass An index of weight relative to height 22 24.5
Curl-ups Knees bent, heels on floor 18 18
Trunk lift Lie facedown and lift upper torso 9" 9"
as high as possible off the floor
Push-ups A test of upper-body strength 10 7
Sit and reach Sit on the floor, bending one leg, 8" 10"
PHOTO (COLOR): Pumping iron: Lawler (above) helps a seventh grader work out; Madison students feel the burn using weights and machines
By Peg Tyre
With Steve Levin, in Titusville and Daniel I. Dorfman, in Chicago
Copyright of Newsweek is the property of Newsweek and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
Accession Number: 8979044