It is not necessary to list the last name of every author in the narrative. Use the following rules.
If you cite multiple pieces of research to support a single statement, put the citations in chronological order and separate them with semi-colons (Smith 2005; Jones and Smith 2006; Baker et al. 2007).
Citations can be provided either by treating the author(s) as the subject of the sentence or by treating the scientific information as the subject.
However, it is almost always preferable to make the scientific information the subject.
2005; Chessman, 2008), whereas Chelodina longicollis is reported to eat a diverse and opportunistic diet (Parmenter, 2010; Chessman, 2007).”
Citation format for the Literature Cited Section:
All citations used in the narrative must be in the Literature Cited section AND every referenced item should be used in the body text. DO NOT reference sources that are not cited in the body text.
In your Literature Cited section, list your references in alphabetical order by the last name of first author using the format below. In the Literature Cited section, always list the names and initials of ALL the authors on the paper, unless there are a very large number of authors (more than 10), in which case et al. is acceptable.
Note that a reference list is typically formatted using hanging indents to make the first author’s name easier to see.
Use this format to cite all articles published in scientific papers. Even journal articles that you find online should be cited as a printed journal article.
Note – the name of the journal is NOT the same as the database where you find a journal article!
Last name(s) and initials of author(s). Year of publication. Name of article. Name of journal. Volume(Issue): pages.
Andersson, S. 2012. Does inbreeding promote evolutionary reduction of flower size?
Experimental evidence from Crepis tectorum (Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 99:
Arntz, A.M., and L.F. Delph. 2001. Pattern and process: evidence for the evolution of photosynthetic
traits in natural populations. Oecologia 127(4): 455-467.
Use this format to cite books. As with journal articles, even books that you find online as a digital book should be cited as a printed source.
Last name(s) and initials of author(s). Year of publication. Title (with edition number if appropriate).
Publisher, City, State or Country.
Stebbins, G.L. 1974. Flowering Plants: Evolution above the Species Level. Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, MA.
Book chapter in an edited volume
Use this format to cite book chapters; this includes entries in encyclopedia-style books as well as more traditional books.
Last name(s) and initials of chapter author(s). Year of publication. Chapter title. Page numbers in Book editor(s) and initial(s) (Eds.) Book title. Publisher, City, State or Country.
Eckert, C. G., K. E. Samis, and S. Dart. 2006. Reproductive assurance and the evolution of uniparental
reproduction in flowering plants. Pp. 183-203 in L. D. Harder, and S. C. Barrett (Eds.) Ecology and
evolution of flowers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Web site sources should be used sparingly and with great caution. Make sure any web-based sources are exceptionally reliable before using them!
Last name(s) and initials of author(s). Year of latest online update. Title. URL Accessed date.
Becklehimer, J. 1994. How do you cite URLs in a bibliography?
http://www.nr/ssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.html. Accessed February 6, 2015.
Important note: web sites without an author or a date of publication are normally not suitable for use in any kind of science report or paper. However, if you do need to cite such articles, use n.a. for “no author” and “n.d.” for no date. If there is no author, cite the title of the article first, as follows
Baker, C.D. (n.d.) Web sites without authors or publication dates are not to be trusted. URL. Accessed October 30, 2015.
Web sites without authors or publication dates are not to be trusted.